https://nova.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/ /manager/Index ${session.getAttribute("locale")} 5 Greenhouse-grown bitter melon: production and quality characteristics https://nova.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/ /manager/Repository/uon:21331 Momordica charantia L.) is a medicinal fruit reported to have antidiabetic properties. To grow this tropical fruit year-round in temperate climates, greenhouse production is necessary, sometimes without insect pollinators. Suitable high-yielding varieties with good bioactivity need to be identified. This experiment evaluated the yield of six varieties of bitter melon under greenhouse conditions and their bioactivity in terms of total phenolic and saponin compounds and total antioxidant activity determined using four assays. Results: The larger varieties (Big Top Medium, Hanuman, Jade and White) were more productive than the small varieties (Indra and Niddhi) in terms of total fruit weight and yield per flower pollinated. The bioactivity (total phenolic and saponin compounds and antioxidant activity) of the two small varieties and Big Top Medium was significantly higher than that of the other three large varieties. Two antioxidant assays, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), were shown to provide the strongest correlations with phenolic and saponin compounds of bitter melon. Conclusion: Preliminary research has identified Big Top Medium as the most suitable variety for greenhouse production. The rich source of phenolic and saponin compounds and their associated antioxidant activity highlight bitter melon as a valuable food.]]> Wed 11 Apr 2018 17:18:45 AEST ]]> Effects of maturity on physicochemical properties of Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) https://nova.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/ /manager/Repository/uon:24629 Wed 11 Apr 2018 14:14:35 AEST ]]> Extraction of flavonoids from bitter melon https://nova.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/ /manager/Repository/uon:19674 Wed 11 Apr 2018 11:01:38 AEST ]]> Effects of the spray-drying temperatures on the physiochemical properties of an encapsulated bitter melon aqueous extract powder https://nova.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/ /manager/Repository/uon:28342 (Momordica charantia L.) is a medicinal fruit often used for the treatment of diabetes, due to its content of saponins, phenolics and flavonoids and its antioxidant capacity. The aims were to use response surface methodology (RSM) to optimise the inlet (125.6, 130, 140, 150, 154.1°C) and outlet (72.9, 75, 80, 85, 87.1°C) temperatures for the spray-drying encapsulation of a bitter melon aqueous extract using a combination of maltodextrin and gum Arabic as encapsulating agent and to determine the stability of the optimised encapsulated powder under various storage conditions. The RSM models were adequate to describe and predict the responses for the process yield, the retentions of saponins, phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity, the moisture content and the water solubility index with an overall R2≥0.91. The optimal inlet and outlet temperatures were determined to be 140°C and 80°C, respectively. The optimised spray-dried powder had high values for process yield (71.4±1.4%), retention of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity (=87.9±2.6%), water solubility index (89.9±0.51%) and had a low moisture content (2.2±0.1%), which was below the Mo=5.71 predicted by the BET model. However, in terms of the morphology of the powder particles under scanning electron microscopy and loss of the bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity, the safest range for preserving the powder at 25°C was determined to range from 22.5% to 33.8%. The encapsulated powder was also slightly more stable at -20 and 10°C than at 30°C, over 150days. Therefore, it can be concluded that spray-drying with the inlet temperature at 140°C and the outlet temperature at 80°C resulted in a very stable encapsulated powder of the bitter melon aqueous extract.]]> Wed 05 Jul 2017 14:38:49 AEST ]]> Optimisation of extraction conditions for recovering carotenoids and antioxidant capacity from Gac peel using response surface methodology https://nova.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/ /manager/Repository/uon:33080 −1, respectively. The carotenoid extraction yield and the antioxidant capacity extraction yield were 271 mg/100 g DW and 737 μm TE/100 g DW, respectively. Thus, the extraction using ethyl acetate with the ratio of 80:1 (mL solvent per g Gac peel) for 150 min at 40.7°C is suggested for recovering carotenoids and antioxidant capacity from Gac peel.]]> Wed 04 Sep 2019 09:54:30 AEST ]]> Effects of four different drying methods on the carotenoid composition and antioxidant capacity of dried Gac peel https://nova.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/ /manager/Repository/uon:33074 Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) is a rich source of carotenoids for the manufacture of powder, oil and capsules for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical uses. Currently, only the aril of the Gac fruit is processed and the peel, similar to the other components, is discarded, although it contains high level of carotenoids, which could be extracted for commercial use. In the present study, four different drying methods (hot‐air, vacuum, heat pump and freeze drying), different temperatures and drying times were investigated for producing dried Gac peel suitable for carotenoid extraction. Results: The drying methods and drying temperatures significantly affected the drying time, carotenoid content and antioxidant capacity of the dried Gac peel. Among the investigated drying methods, hot‐air drying at 80°C and vacuum drying at 50°C produced dried Gac peel that exhibited the highest retention of carotenoids and the strongest antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: Hot‐air drying at 80°C and vacuum drying at 50°C are recommended for the drying of Gac peel.]]> Tue 03 Sep 2019 18:30:56 AEST ]]> Changes in physicochemical properties of Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) during storage https://nova.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/ /manager/Repository/uon:34091 -1 dry weight), ß-carotene (up to 1.5 mg g-1 dry weight) and oil (up to 0.4 g g-1 dry weight) and these were strongly correlated with firmness (lycopene -0.923, ß-carotene -0.754, oil -0.764, p < 0.01) and TSS (lycopene -0.747, ß-carotene -0.664, oil -0.672, p < 0.01). However, quality declined with further storage. Skin colour did not relate well to aril quality but fruit firmness and aril TSS are candidates in the development of simple indices for the quality management of commercial Gac fruit.]]> Tue 03 Sep 2019 18:27:18 AEST ]]> Physicochemical properties of Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng) seeds and their oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide and soxhlet methods https://nova.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/ /manager/Repository/uon:34879 2) and hexane (Soxhlet). The Gac seed kernel accounted for 66.4 ± 2.7% of the seed weight, and 53.02 ± 1.27% of it was oil. The SC-CO2 oil had a higher quality than the Soxhlet oil for important criteria, such as peroxide (0.12 ± 0.02 vs. 1.80 ± 0.01 meq O2/kg oil), free fatty acid (1.74 ± 0.12 vs. 2.47 ± 0.09 mg KOH/g oil) and unsaponifiable matter (33.2 ± 1.5 vs. 52.6 ± 2.4 g/kg) values, respectively. It also had a better colour (light yellow vs. dark greenish brown) and a higher antioxidant capacity measured with the DPPH (52.69 ± 0.06 vs. 42.98 ± 0.02 µmol Trolox equivalent/g oil) and ABTS (2.10 ± 0.12 vs. 1.52 ± 0.06 µmol Trolox equivalent/g oil) assays. However, a higher yield (53.02 ± 1.27 vs. 34.1 ± 0.8%) was obtained for the Soxhlet oil. Unless refined, the oils would not be edible due to their high unsaponifiable matter, but the SC-CO2 oil would need less refining. Alternatively, the high unsaponifiable matter in the oil, especially in the Soxhlet oil, may make it useful for medicinal purposes.]]> Tue 03 Sep 2019 18:18:23 AEST ]]> Improving the vanillin-sulphuric acid method for quantifying total saponins https://nova.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/ /manager/Repository/uon:34881 Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) seed kernels. To improve the method, a solvent evaporation step was added prior to the colorisation reaction to prevent undesired solvent interference during the reaction step. Using this modified protocol for the aescin standard curve and the Gac seed kernel extract eliminated any solvent interference. Thus, this improved protocol is recommended for the quantification of the saponin content of plant extracts irrespective of which extraction solvent is used.]]> Tue 03 Sep 2019 18:09:42 AEST ]]> Effect of solvents and extraction methods on recovery of bioactive compounds from defatted Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) seeds https://nova.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/ /manager/Repository/uon:34880 −1) while water-saturated n-butanol and methanol extracts were characterized by their highest content of saponins (40.75 ± 0.31 and 38.80 ± 2.82 mg AE g−1, respectively). Aqueous extract with microwave assistance achieved the highest phenolics (3.18 ± 0.04 mg GAE g−1). As a measure of antioxidant capacity, the 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) assay gave highest value to the aqueous microwave extract (23.56 ± 0.82 μmol TE g−1) while the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay gave highest values to water-saturated n-butanol and 70% ethanol extracts (5.25 ± 0.04 and 4.71 ± 0.39 μmol TE g−1, respectively). The total solids value was highest using water with microwave assistance (141.5 g kg−1) while ultrasound treatment did not improve any extractions. Therefore, trypsin inhibitors are suitably recovered using water while water-saturated n-butanol or methanol is for saponins, both using a conventional method. Microwave extraction is suitable for phenolics recovery. These conditions are recommended for an efficient recovery of bioactive compounds from defatted Gac seeds.]]> Tue 03 Sep 2019 18:08:26 AEST ]]> Bioactive composition, antioxidant activity, and anticancer potential of freeze-dried extracts from defatted Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) seeds https://nova.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/ /manager/Repository/uon:34442 Tue 03 Sep 2019 18:00:55 AEST ]]> Optimisation of the microwave-assisted ethanol extraction of saponins from Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) seeds https://nova.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/ /manager/Repository/uon:34443 Tue 03 Sep 2019 18:00:49 AEST ]]> Microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction for recovering carotenoids from Gac peel and their effects on antioxidant capacity of the extracts https://nova.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/ /manager/Repository/uon:33078 Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) contains high levels of bioactive compounds, especially carotenoids which possess significant antioxidant capacities. However, the peel of Gac is regarded as a waste from the production of carotenoid‐rich oil from Gac fruit. In this study, carotenoids of Gac peel were extracted by microwave‐assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasound‐assisted extraction (UAE) using ethyl acetate as extraction solvent. The effect of extraction time and different levels of microwave and ultrasonic powers on the yield of total carotenoid and antioxidant capacity of the extracts were investigated. The results showed that an extraction at 120 W for 25 min and an extraction at 200 W for 80 min were the most effective for MAE and UAE of the Gac peel samples, respectively. The maximum carotenoid and antioxidant capacity yields of UAE were significantly higher than those of the MAE. The antioxidant capacity of extract obtained by the UAE was also significantly higher that of the conventional extraction using the same ratio of solvent to material. The results showed that both MAE and UAE could be used to reduce the extraction time significantly in comparison with conventional extraction of Gac peel while still obtained good extraction efficiencies. Thus, MAE and UAE are recommended for the improvement of carotenoid and antioxidant capacity extraction from Gac peel.]]> Tue 03 Sep 2019 17:53:40 AEST ]]> Improved propagation methods for GAC (Momordica Cochinchinensis Spreng.) https://nova.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/ /manager/Repository/uon:39938 53% and with the youngest rootstock (4 and 8 weeks) this increased to > 85%. Further work could investigate the production potential of crops using cuttings and grafted plants.]]> Thu 30 Jun 2022 13:33:31 AEST ]]> Ultrasound-assisted extraction of GAC peel: An optimization of extraction conditions for recovering carotenoids and antioxidant capacity https://nova.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/ /manager/Repository/uon:41195 Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.), which is considered as waste of Gac processing, has been found to possess high levels of carotenoids and other antioxidants. This study aimed at determining the optimal conditions of an ultrasound-assisted extraction for recovering carotenoids and antioxidant capacity from Gac peel. A response surface methodology using the Box–Behnken design was employed to investigate the impact of extraction time, temperature and ultrasonic power on the recovery of total carotenoid and antioxidant capacity. The results showed that an extraction time of 76 min, temperature of 50 °C and ultrasonic power of 250 W were the optimal conditions for the extraction. The experimental carotenoid yield and antioxidant capacity obtained under the optimal extraction conditions were validated as 269 mg/100 g DW (dry weight) and 822 µM TE (Trolox equivalent)/100 g DW, respectively. These values were not significantly different from the values predicted by the models. The HPLC analysis for carotenoid composition showed that β-carotene, lycopene and lutein were the principal carotenoids of the extract, which constitute 86% of the total carotenoid content. Based on the obtained results, the ultrasound-assisted extraction using ethyl acetate under the above optimal conditions is suggested for the simultaneous recovery of carotenoids and antioxidant capacity from Gac peel.]]> Thu 28 Jul 2022 11:12:19 AEST ]]> Encapsulation of carotenoid-rich oil from Gac peel: optimisation of the encapsulating process using a spray drier and the storage stability of encapsulated powder https://nova.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/ /manager/Repository/uon:35145 Thu 17 Jun 2021 14:49:11 AEST ]]> Optimised extraction of trypsin inhibitors from defatted gac (Momordica cochinchinensis spreng) seeds for production of a trypsin inhibitor-enriched freeze dried powder https://nova.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/ /manager/Repository/uon:37414 Thu 12 Nov 2020 17:17:51 AEDT ]]> Gac fruit: nutrient and phytochemical composition, and options for processing https://nova.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/ /manager/Repository/uon:11846 Sat 24 Mar 2018 08:09:52 AEDT ]]> Optimized aqueous extraction of saponins from bitter melon for production of a saponin-enriched bitter melon powder https://nova.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/ /manager/Repository/uon:20934 Sat 24 Mar 2018 08:06:05 AEDT ]]> Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.): a rich source of bioactive compounds and its potential health benefits https://nova.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/ /manager/Repository/uon:27134 Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) is a tropical vine originating from South and South-East Asia. Gac fruit has traditionally been used in Asia to provide red colour for cuisines and enhance visional health. Recently, Gac fruit has emerged as a potential source of carotenoids, especially lycopene and β-carotene. Carotenoids and other identified bioactives from this fruit including phenolics, flavonoids and trypsin inhibitors are associated with many beneficial bioactivities such as antioxidant, anticancer and provitamin A activities. In addition to the traditional utilisation, commercial products like Gac powder and Gac oil have been manufactured as natural colourants and medicinal supplements. This paper is a review of the scientific literature on the nutritional composition, biological activities and processing of Gac fruit.]]> Sat 24 Mar 2018 07:33:02 AEDT ]]> Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) bioactive composition and health benefits: a review https://nova.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/ /manager/Repository/uon:29023 Momordica charantia L.) has traditionally been used as a medicinal food in many developing countries. It is a tropical fruit claimed to have therapeutic effects due to its content of bioactive compounds. The present review is an attempt to highlight the bitter melon varieties, bioactive composition that is linked to its therapeutic effects, especially antidiabetic effect, in vitro and in vivo models, and understanding of the mechanisms of actions of bitter melon that are associated with epidemiological evidences. This paper also outlines a proposed processing scheme aiming to fully utilize bitter melon and add further value to this fruit.]]> Sat 24 Mar 2018 07:31:06 AEDT ]]> Effects of pretreatments and air drying temperatures on the carotenoid composition and antioxidant capacity of dried gac peel https://nova.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/ /manager/Repository/uon:33748 Mon 07 Jan 2019 10:45:15 AEDT ]]> Yield of carotenoids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of extracts from Gac peel as affected by different solvents and extraction conditions https://nova.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/ /manager/Repository/uon:33079 Fri 24 Aug 2018 15:01:54 AEST ]]> Reduced pollination efficiency compromises some physicochemical qualities in gac (Momordica cochinchinensis spreng.) fruit https://nova.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/ /manager/Repository/uon:49102 1.2 kg) and quality. Cool storage is a low-cost method for the short-term storage of Gac pollen. However, methods for drying pollen to an inactive state need investigation for a storage protocol, and for improvements in fruit set and fruit physicochemical qualities using hand pollination.]]> Fri 05 May 2023 11:25:02 AEST ]]>