- The relationship of verbal learning and verbal fluency with written story production: implications for social functioning in first episode psychosis
- Stain, Helen J.; Hodne, Sigrun; Joa, Inge; Hegelstad, Wenche ten Velden; Douglas, Katie M.; Langveld, Johannes; Gisselgard, Jens P.; Johannesen, Jan Olav; Larsen, Tor K.
- Schizophrenia Research Vol. 138, Issue 2-3, p. 212-217
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- journal article
- Background: Impairments in speech, communication and Theory of Mind are common in schizophrenia, and compromise social functioning. Some of these impairments may already be present pre-morbidly. This study aimed to investigate verbal functions in relation to written story production and social functioning in people experiencing a first episode of psychosis (FEP). Method: Two groups of participants: FEP (N = 31) and healthy controls (HC, N = 31), completed measures of clinical status, social functioning, a series of neuropsychological tests targeting verbal functioning, and the “Frog Where Are You?” story production task. Results: Story results showed reduced efficiency (words per minute) and self-monitoring (corrections per minute) for FEP compared with HC groups (p < 0.01). The FEP group performed significantly poorer than the HC group on most indices of verbal learning and verbal fluency. Story production was positively associated with verbal learning and verbal fluency for the FEP group only (p < 0.05). Premorbid function decline was associated with impaired verbal learning and memory for the FEP group. Conclusion: Individuals with FEP show a childhood history of reduced social and academic performance that is associated with skills essential for daily social interactions, as evidenced by the findings for story production, verbal learning and verbal fluency.
- story production; verbal memory; first-episode psychosis; social functioning
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