${session.getAttribute("locale")} 5 Interethnic differences in pharmacokinetics of antibacterials Wed 21 Jun 2017 16:53:13 EST ]]> Treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: vancomycin and beyond Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Vancomycin remains an acceptable treatment option, with moves toward individualized dosing to a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) target. Numerous practicalities, however, would need to be resolved before implementation. Lipoglycopeptides as a class show excellent in vitro potency. Their long half-lives and complex PKs may preclude these agents being used in critically ill patients. Anti-MRSA cephalosporins provide great promise in the treatment of MRSA. These agents, despite broad-spectrum activity, should be reserved for patients with MRSA infections as it is likely that usage will be associated with increased rates of resistance. Daptomycin is currently the only antibiotic to have shown noninferiority to vancomycin in the treatment of MRSA bacteremia. The results of an open-labeled trial to address the superiority of daptomycin compared with vancomycin in reduced vancomycin susceptibility infections are eagerly anticipated. No drug to date has shown superiority to vancomycin in the treatment of MRSA infections with the possible exception of linezolid in hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), making linezolid an important option in the treatment of MRSA-proven HAP. Whether these strengths and features are agent or class specific are unclear but will likely be answered with the marketing of tedizolid. There are insufficient data to recommend either quinupristin/dalfopristin or tigecycline, as first line in the treatment of severe MRSA infections. These agents however remain options in patients with no other alternatives.]]> Wed 21 Jun 2017 16:39:18 EST ]]> Intact sensorimotor gating in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Wed 21 Jun 2017 15:57:14 EST ]]> The relationship between cranial structure, biomechanical performance and ecological diversity in varanoid lizards Varanus salvadorii displayed high strain levels during shaking, especially in the areas between the orbits. All models exhibit less strain during pull back loading compared to shake loading, even though a larger force was applied (pull =30N, shake = 20N). Relationships were identified between the morphology, performance, and ecology. Species that did not feed on hard prey clustered in the gracile region of cranial morphospace and exhibited significantly higher levels of strain during biting (P = 0.0106). Species that fed on large prey clustered in the elongate area of mandible morphospace. This relationship differs from those that have been identified in other taxonomic groups such as crocodiles and mammals. This difference may be due to a combination of the open 'space-frame' structure of the varanoid lizard skull, and the 'pull back' behaviour that some species use for processing large prey.]]> Wed 21 Jun 2017 14:12:12 EST ]]> Test ordering in an evidence free zone: rates and associations of Australian general practice trainees’ vitamin D test ordering Wed 21 Jun 2017 12:55:16 EST ]]> Under-reporting of socioeconomic status of patients in stroke trials: adherence to consort principles Wed 21 Jun 2017 12:41:15 EST ]]> Discomfort sharing the general practice waiting room with mentally ill patients: a cross-sectional study Wed 21 Jun 2017 12:27:14 EST ]]> GP trainees' in-consultation information-seeking: associations with human, paper and electronic sources Wed 21 Jun 2017 11:59:14 EST ]]> Reducing general practice trainees' antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections: an evaluation of a combined face-to-face workshop and online educational intervention Wed 21 Jun 2017 11:45:14 EST ]]> Changes in early-career family physicians' antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infection and acute bronchitis: a multicentre longitudinal study Wed 21 Jun 2017 11:24:14 EST ]]> Improving access to acute stroke therapies: a controlled trial of organised pre-hospital and emergency care Wed 21 Jun 2017 10:14:14 EST ]]> Delay aware resource allocation scheme for a cognitive LTE based radio network Wed 21 Jun 2017 09:25:14 EST ]]> The sensitivity of biological finite element models to the resolution of surface geometry: a case study of crocodilian crania Tue 20 Jun 2017 16:02:13 EST ]]> Strabo and the shape of his Historika Hypomnemata Tue 20 Jun 2017 15:27:15 EST ]]> Influence of combined loading on the structural stability of carbon nanotubes Tue 20 Jun 2017 15:20:32 EST ]]> Performance and reward practices of multinational corporations operating in Australia Tue 20 Jun 2017 15:20:29 EST ]]> Multinational enterprises and industrial relations: a research agenda for the 21st century Tue 20 Jun 2017 15:20:20 EST ]]> Bronchoconstriction and airway biology: potential impact and therapeutic opportunities Tue 20 Jun 2017 15:20:18 EST ]]> On a thickness free expression for the stiffness of carbon nanotubes Tue 20 Jun 2017 15:20:16 EST ]]> Microwave-assisted extraction of Eucalyptus robusta leaf for the optimal yield of total phenolic compounds Eucalyptus robusta (E. robusta) has a significant value in traditional medicine and recently has been shown to possess many pharmacological properties in vitro. This study was designed to utilise microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) to yield optimal total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), proanthocyanidin levels and antioxidant capacity from E. robusta using water as the solvent, facilitated by the use of response surface methodology (RSM). A three-level-three-factor Box–Behnken design was implemented to elucidate the effect of irradiation time, power and sample-to-solvent ratio on the yields of these phytochemicals. The results highlighted the accuracy and reliability of RSM as a tool for predicting the yields of TPC, TFC, proanthocyanidins and total antioxidants using MAE. Sample-to-solvent ratio had the greatest impact on the TPC yield followed by power and irradiation time. The optimal MAE conditions for TPC and TFC were 3 min, 600 W power and 2 g/100 mL sample-to-solvent ratio. The experimental yield of TPC was 58.40 ± 1.03 mg GAE/g, and 19.15 ± 1.06 mg RE/g of TFC was obtained under these optimal conditions. These conditions, optimised for maximum TPC yield also liberated 62%, 64.6%, 66.3% and 67% of the maximum proanthocyanidins, ABTS, DPPH and CUPRAC values, respectively. This study revealed that MAE is a reliable and efficient method for extracting high yields of phytochemicals from E. robusta, with significant potential to be up-scaled for industrial, nutraceutical or pharmaceutical applications.]]> Tue 20 Jun 2017 15:20:14 EST ]]> Oxidative stress and human spermatozoa: diagnostic and functional significance of aldehydes generated as a result of lipid peroxidation Tue 20 Jun 2017 15:20:14 EST ]]> Anodal tDCS over the motor cortex on prepared and unprepared responses in young adults. Tue 20 Jun 2017 15:06:12 EST ]]> Modelling academics as agents: an implementation of an agent-based strategic publication model Tue 20 Jun 2017 14:59:13 EST ]]> The ABC's of suicide risk assessment: applying a tripartite approach to individual evaluations Tue 20 Jun 2017 14:31:13 EST ]]> Changes in the clinical and epidemiological features of group A streptococcal bacteraemia in Australia's Northern Territory Thu 22 Jun 2017 16:48:13 EST ]]> Cooperative organizations as an engine of equitable rural economic development Thu 22 Jun 2017 16:48:13 EST ]]> Establishing duration-specific running intensities from match-play analysis in rugby league Thu 22 Jun 2017 16:27:20 EST ]]> Peri-operative levosimendan in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: an overview of the evidence Thu 22 Jun 2017 16:27:18 EST ]]> Genetic burden associated with varying degrees of disease severity in endometriosis Thu 22 Jun 2017 16:27:17 EST ]]> Ginkgo biloba and vitamin E ameliorate haloperidol-induced vacuous chewingmovement and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in a rat tardive dyskinesia model Ginkgo biloba (EGb761), a potent antioxidant, may have neuroprotective effects. We hypothesized that there would be decreased BDNF expression in TD, but that treatment with EGb761 would increase BDNF expression and reduce TD manifestations in a rat model. Forty rats were treated with haloperidol (2 mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal injections) for 5 weeks. EGb761 (50 mg/kg/day) and vitamin E (20 mg/kg/day) were then administered by oral gavage for another 5 weeks, and we compared the effects of treatment with EGb761 or vitamin E on haloperidol-induced vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) and BDNF expression in four brain regions: prefrontal cortex (PFC), striatum (ST), substantia nigra (SNR), and globus pallidus (GP). Our results showed that haloperidol administration led to a progressive increase in VCMs, but both EGb761 and vitamin E significantly decreased VCMs. Haloperidol also decreased BDNF expression in all four brain regions, but both EGb761 and vitamin E administration significantly increased BDNF expression. Our results showed that both EGb761 and VE treatments exerted similar positive effects in a rat model of TD and increased BDNF expression levels in the four tested brain regions, suggesting that both EGb761 and vitamin E improve TD symptoms, possibly by enhancing BDNF in the brain and/or via their free radical-scavenging actions.]]> Thu 22 Jun 2017 16:27:15 EST ]]> Contributing factors to change-of-direction ability in professional rugby league players Thu 22 Jun 2017 16:27:14 EST ]]> Non-isothermal water retention curve and volume change equation for unsaturated soils Thu 22 Jun 2017 16:20:26 EST ]]> Sources of interference in item and associative recognition memory Thu 22 Jun 2017 16:20:25 EST ]]> Tag team simulation: an innovative approach for promoting active engagement of participants and observers during group simulations Thu 22 Jun 2017 16:20:24 EST ]]> CD117⁺ dendritic and mast cells are dependent on RasGRP4 to function as accessory cells for optimal natural killer cell-mediated responses to lipopolysaccharide Thu 22 Jun 2017 16:20:23 EST ]]> Providing clinical education: working across sectors Thu 22 Jun 2017 16:20:22 EST ]]> Numerical investigations on breakage behaviour of granular materials under triaxial stresses Thu 22 Jun 2017 16:20:20 EST ]]> Techno-economic assessment of integrated chemical looping air separation for oxy-fuel combustion: an Australian case study 3/MWh, with Bayswater having the lowest normalized oxygen demand and Munmorah having the highest one. Moreover, it was found that by replacing a cryogenic-based ASU with an ICLAS unit, the average reduction in the ASU power demand was up to 47% and 76%, respectively, for ICLAS[S] and ICLAS[FG]. Similarly, the average thermal efficiency penalty associated with the cryogenic and the ICLAS[S] and ICLAS[FG] units was found to be about 9.5%, 7.5%, and 5%, respectively, indicating that the ICLAS[FG] unit is the most energy efficient option for oxy-fuel plants. Economic analyses suggest that a retrofit cost reduction of about 32% can be achieved by incorporating an ICLAS[FG] unit. On average, the levelized cost of electricity associated with the cryogenic and the ICLAS[S] and ICLAS[FG] units for the NSW fleet of coal-fired power plants was found to be about $118/MWh, $105/MWh, and $95/MWh, respectively.]]> Thu 22 Jun 2017 16:20:18 EST ]]> What are the primary concerns of nursing students as they prepare for and contemplate their first clinical placement experience? prior to their first placement experience. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the concerns of first year bachelor of nursing students from one Australian university as they prepared for their first clinical placement. Participants completed an online 'readiness for practice' survey consisting of 22 items. This paper focuses on participants' responses to the one open ended question: 'Please comment on any concerns that you have in relation to being prepared for your first clinical placement'. Summative qualitative content analysis was used for analysis. 144 students (55%) responded to the open ended question. Responses were categorised into six themes including: Not prepared for placement; feeling nervous, anxious and worried; bullying and belonging; practicalities; patient safety and making mistakes; and working outside of my scope of practice. It appears that activities designed to equip students with the capacity to manage the inherent challenges of undertaking a clinical placement may sometimes have a paradoxical effect by increasing students' level of stress and anxiety. An enhanced understanding of students' concerns may help educators implement appropriate support strategies.]]> Thu 22 Jun 2017 16:20:17 EST ]]> Factors related to vaccine uptake by young adult women in the catch-up phase of the National HPV Vaccination Program in Australia: results from an observational study Thu 22 Jun 2017 16:20:15 EST ]]> Integration options and economic analysis of an integrated chemical looping air separation process for oxy-fuel combustion $59/MWh), and/or a high carbon tax (>$33/tonne).]]> Thu 22 Jun 2017 16:20:15 EST ]]> Modelling hydro-mechanical interactive behaviour of unsaturated soils Thu 22 Jun 2017 16:20:13 EST ]]> 'Smiles not tears': a dental education program in New South Wales for young Aboriginal children Thu 22 Jun 2017 16:20:13 EST ]]> Identification of the microRNA networks contributing to macrophage differentiation and function Thu 22 Jun 2017 15:52:16 EST ]]> Relating shear strength of unsaturated soils with capillary water retention curve Thu 22 Jun 2017 15:17:16 EST ]]> Distinct forms of synaptic inhibition and neuromodulation regulate calretinin-positive neuron excitability in the spinal cord dorsal horn Thu 22 Jun 2017 14:49:14 EST ]]> Taken by the numbers how value-added measures distort our view of teachers' work Thu 22 Jun 2017 14:07:14 EST ]]> Increasing smoking cessation care across a network of hospitals: an implementation study Thu 22 Jun 2017 13:04:12 EST ]]> Uptake of smoking cessation aids by smokers with a mental illness Thu 22 Jun 2017 12:57:12 EST ]]> Factors associated with concurrent tobacco smoking and heavy alcohol consumption within a socioeconomically disadvantaged Australian sample Thu 22 Jun 2017 12:57:12 EST ]]> Better correlation of cognitive function to white matter integrity than to blood supply in subjects with leukoaraiosis Thu 22 Jun 2017 12:22:14 EST ]]> Who is more likely to use the internet for health behavior change? A cross-sectional survey of internet use among smokers and nonsmokers who are orthopedic trauma patients Thu 22 Jun 2017 11:26:12 EST ]]> Reliability study of clinical electronic records with paper records in the NSW Public Oral Health Service Thu 22 Jun 2017 11:05:14 EST ]]> A feasibility study of the implementation of relational contracting in China's public projects Thu 22 Jun 2017 10:44:14 EST ]]> Men and women with psychosis and the impact of illness-duration on sex-differences: the second Australian national survey of psychosis Thu 22 Jun 2017 10:30:13 EST ]]> Barriers in proper implementation of Public Private Partnerships (PPP) in Sri Lanka Thu 22 Jun 2017 09:41:18 EST ]]> Designing learning events for construction management curriculum utilising 4d learning environments Thu 22 Jun 2017 09:41:18 EST ]]> Using an age-based lens to test the antecedents of value in retail Thu 22 Jun 2017 09:34:34 EST ]]> Cancer Treatment Survey (CaTS): development and validation of a new instrument to measure patients' preparation for chemotherapy and radiotherapy Thu 22 Jun 2017 09:34:31 EST ]]> Will RMB appreciation reduce trade deficit in the US? Thu 22 Jun 2017 09:34:29 EST ]]> Proficiency deficiency: mastery of fundamental movement skills and skill components in overweight and obese children Thu 22 Jun 2017 09:34:21 EST ]]> English language proficiency and learning among Australian international postgraduate accounting students Thu 22 Jun 2017 09:34:19 EST ]]> Redox characteristics of Fe-Ni/SiO₂ bimetallic oxygen carriers in CO under conditions pertinent to chemical looping combustion Thu 22 Jun 2017 09:34:17 EST ]]> Validation of the needs assessment for advanced lung cancer patients (NA-ALCP) Thu 22 Jun 2017 09:34:14 EST ]]> New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution Fri 23 Jun 2017 18:10:38 EST ]]> Candidate locus analysis of the TERT-CLPTM1L cancer risk region on chromosome 5p15 identifies multiple independent variants associated with endometrial cancer risk −6 to P = 7.7 × 10−5). Only one falls into a haplotype previously associated with other cancer types (rs7705526, in TERT intron 1), and this SNP has been shown to alter TERT promoter activity. One of the novel associations (rs13174814) maps to a second region in the TERT promoter and the other (rs62329728) is in the promoter region of CLPTM1L; neither are correlated with previously reported cancer-associated SNPs. Using TCGA RNASeq data, we found significantly increased expression of both TERT and CLPTM1L in endometrial cancer tissue compared with normal tissue (TERTP = 1.5 × 10−18, CLPTM1LP = 1.5 × 10−19). Our study thus reports a novel endometrial cancer risk locus and expands the spectrum of cancer types associated with genetic variation at 5p15, further highlighting the importance of this region for cancer susceptibility.]]> Fri 23 Jun 2017 17:46:16 EST ]]> Color enhancement in endoscopic images using adaptive sigmoid function and space variant color reproduction Fri 23 Jun 2017 17:46:16 EST ]]> Achieving the World Health Organization's vision for clinical pharmacology Fri 23 Jun 2017 17:39:34 EST ]]> Deprescribing psychotropic medications in aged care facilities: the potential role of family members Fri 23 Jun 2017 17:39:34 EST ]]> Powers of two modulo powers of three m for each positive integer m, the set of points {(n, 2n mod 3m): n = 0}, viewed as a subset of Z=0 ×Z=0 is bi-periodic, with minimal periods f(3m) (horizontally) and 3m (vertically). We show that if one considers the classes of n modulo 6, one obtains a finer structural classification. This result is presented within the context of the question of strong normality of Stoneham numbers.]]> Fri 23 Jun 2017 17:39:32 EST ]]> ER stress-induced autophagy in melanoma Fri 23 Jun 2017 17:39:29 EST ]]> The human epidermal antimicrobial barrier: Current knowledge, clinical relevance and therapeutic implications Fri 23 Jun 2017 17:39:28 EST ]]> An effective method for evolving reaction networks in synthetic biochemical systems Fri 23 Jun 2017 17:39:26 EST ]]> Consumer health informatics for people who use AAC: views on e-health records at home Fri 23 Jun 2017 17:39:15 EST ]]> The ONIOM method and its applications Fri 23 Jun 2017 17:11:16 EST ]]> How is the experience of pain measured in older, community-dwelling people with osteoarthritis? A systematic review of the literature Fri 23 Jun 2017 16:29:16 EST ]]> Best vaccination practice and medically attended injection site events following deltoid intramuscular injection Fri 23 Jun 2017 16:29:14 EST ]]> The prevalence and cross-sectional associations of neuropathic-like pain among older, community-dwelling women with arthritis Fri 23 Jun 2017 16:29:13 EST ]]> Ventilation inhomogeneities in children with congenital thoracic malformations Fri 23 Jun 2017 16:03:06 EST ]]> Effects of an anti-inflammatory VAP-1/SSAO inhibitor, PXS-4728A, on pulmonary neutrophil migration Klebsiella pneumoniae infection, cecal ligation and puncture as well as rhinovirus exacerbated asthma models were also assessed using PXS-4728A. Results: Selective VAP-1/SSAO inhibition by PXS-4728A diminished leukocyte rolling and adherence induced by CXCL1/KC. Inhibition of VAP-1/SSAO also dampened the migration of neutrophils to the lungs in response to LPS, Klebsiella pneumoniae lung infection and CLP induced sepsis; whilst still allowing for normal neutrophil defense function, resulting in increased survival. The functional effects of this inhibition were demonstrated in the RV exacerbated asthma model, with a reduction in cellular infiltrate correlating with a reduction in airways hyperractivity. Conclusions and implications: This study demonstrates that the endothelial cell ligand VAP-1/SSAO contributes to the migration of neutrophils during acute lung inflammation, pulmonary infection and airway hyperractivity. These results highlight the potential of inhibiting of VAP-1/SSAO enzymatic function, by PXS-4728A, as a novel therapeutic approach in lung diseases that are characterized by neutrophilic pattern of inflammation.]]> Fri 23 Jun 2017 16:01:23 EST ]]> Predictive direct power control for grid connected power converters with dc-link voltage dynamic reference design Fri 23 Jun 2017 16:01:20 EST ]]> Predictive optimal switching sequence direct power control for grid-connected power converters Fri 23 Jun 2017 16:01:19 EST ]]> Effect of aerobic exercise training dose on liver fat and visceral adiposity 2peak, 60 min, 4 d/week); ii) high intensity, low volume aerobic exercise (HI:LO, 70% VO2peak, 45 min, 3 d/week); iii) low to moderate intensity, low volume aerobic exercise (LO:LO, 50% VO2peak 45 min, 3 d/week); or iv) placebo (PLA). Liver fat (spectroscopy) and VAT (magnetic resonance imaging) were measured before and after intervention. Results: Forty-seven of the 48 (n = 12 in each group) participants completed the trial. There were no serious adverse events. There was a significant change in group x time interaction in liver fat, which reduced in HI:LO by 2.38 ± 0.73%, in LO:HI by 2.62 ± 1.00%, and in LO:LO by 0.84 ± 0.47% but not in PLA (increase of 1.10 ± 0.62%) (p = 0.04). There was a significant reduction in VAT in HI:LO (-258.38 ± 87.78 cm3), in LO:HI (-386.80 ± 119.5 cm3), and in LO:LO (-212.96 ± 105.54 cm3), but not in PLA (92.64 ± 83.46 cm3) (p = 0.03). There were no significant differences between the dose or intensity of the exercise regimen and reductions in liver fat or VAT (p >0.05). Conclusion: The study found no difference in efficacy of liver fat reduction by either aerobic exercise dose or intensity. All of the aerobic exercise regimens employed reduced liver fat and VAT by a small amount without clinically significant weight loss.]]> Fri 23 Jun 2017 16:01:16 EST ]]> Dielectric function and its predicted effect on localized plasmon resonances of equiatomic Au-Cu Fri 23 Jun 2017 15:54:25 EST ]]> Psychosocial analysis of cancer survivors in rural Australia: focus on demographics, quality of life and financial domains Fri 23 Jun 2017 15:54:24 EST ]]> Smoking and mental health problems Fri 23 Jun 2017 15:54:21 EST ]]> Vitamin D: beyond metabolism Fri 23 Jun 2017 15:54:18 EST ]]> Polypharmacy among inpatients aged 70 years or older in Australia Fri 23 Jun 2017 15:54:15 EST ]]> Stroke, physical function, and death over a 15-year period in older Australian women Fri 23 Jun 2017 15:54:15 EST ]]> An efficient continuous flow approach to furnish furan-based biaryls t-butyl based palladium catalyst CatCart™ FC1032™. Deactivated aryl bromides and activated aryl chlorides were cross-coupled with 5-formyl-2-furanylboronic in the presence of (Bu)₄N⁺OAc⁻ using the bis-triphenylphosphine CatCart™ PdCl₂(PPh₃)₂-DVB. Initial evidence indicates the latter method may serve as a universal approach to conduct Suzuki cross-couplings with the protocol successfully employed in the synthesis of the current gold standard Hedgehog pathway inhibitor LDE225.]]> Fri 23 Jun 2017 15:26:14 EST ]]> Quinolone-1-(2H)-ones as hedgehog signalling pathway inhibitors Fri 23 Jun 2017 15:19:15 EST ]]> Hedgehog signalling pathway inhibitors as cancer suppressing agents TM), approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of adult basal cell carcinoma. In this perspective we outline the current state of Hh pathway inhibitors with a particular focus on potential limitations of upstream Hh pathway inhibition in relation to resistance mutations and crosstalk pathways. Together, these limitations indicate that inhibition of downstream components, specifically the Gli family of transcription factors, may represent a next generation approach to suppress tumours associated with aberrant Hh pathway signalling. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.]]> Fri 23 Jun 2017 15:19:14 EST ]]> Neuromuscular effects of Common Krait (Bungarus caeruleus) envenoming in Sri Lanka Bungarus caeruleus) bites were recruited from a Sri Lankan hospital. All patients had serial neurological examinations and stimulated concentric needle single-fibre electromyography (sfEMG) of orbicularis oculi in hospital at 6 wk and 6-9 mth post-bite. Principal Findings: There were 33 patients enrolled (median age 35 y; 24 males). Eight did not develop neurotoxicity and had normal sfEMG. Eight had mild neurotoxicity with ptosis, normal sfEMG; six received antivenom and all recovered within 20-32 h. Seventeen patients developed severe neurotoxicity with rapidly descending paralysis, from ptosis to complete ophthalmoplegia, facial, bulbar and neck weakness. All 17 received Indian polyvalent antivenom a median 3.5 h post-bite (2.8-7.2 h), which cleared unbound venom from blood. Despite this, the paralysis worsened requiring intubation and ventilation within 7 h post-bite. sfEMG showed markedly increased jitter and neuromuscular blocks within 12 h. sfEMG abnormalities gradually improved over 24 h, corresponding with clinical recovery. Muscle recovery occurred in ascending order. Myotoxicity was not evident, clinically or biochemically, in any of the patients. Patients were extubated a median 96 h post-bite (54-216 h). On discharge, median 8 days (4-12 days) post-bite, patients were clinically normal but had mild sfEMG abnormalities which persisted at 6 wk post-bite. There were no clinical or neurophysiological abnormalities at 6-9 mth. Conclusions: Common krait envenoming causes rapid onset severe neuromuscular paralysis which takes days to recover clinically consistent with sfEMG. Subclinical neuromuscular dysfunction lasts weeks but was not permanent. Antivenom effectively cleared venom but did not prevent worsening or reverse neuromuscular paralysis.]]> Fri 23 Jun 2017 12:45:14 EST ]]> Evaluation of material point method for use in geotechnics Fri 23 Jun 2017 12:38:23 EST ]]> Excitatory amino acid receptors in the dorsomedial hypothalamic area contribute to the chemoreflex tachypneic response Fri 23 Jun 2017 12:38:19 EST ]]> Neurotoxicity in Russells viper (Daboia russelii) envenoming in Sri Lanka: a clinical and neurophysiological study Daboia russelii) cause unique neuromuscular paralysis not seen in other Russells vipers. Objective: To investigate the time course and severity of neuromuscular dysfunction in definite Russells viper bites, including antivenom response. Methodology: We prospectively enrolled all patients (>16 years) presenting with Russells viper bites over 14 months. Cases were confirmed by snake identification and/or enzyme immunoassay. All patients had serial neurological examinations and in some, single fibre electromyography (sfEMG) of the orbicularis oculi was performed. Results: 245 definite Russells viper bite patients (median age: 41 years; 171 males) presented a median 2.5 h (interquartile range: 1.75-4.0 h) post-bite. All but one had local envenoming and 199 (78%) had systemic envenoming: coagulopathy in 166 (68%), neurotoxicity in 130 (53%), and oliguria in 19 (8%). Neurotoxicity was characterised by ptosis (100%), blurred vision (93%), and ophthalmoplegia (90%) with weak extraocular movements, strabismus, and diplopia. Neurotoxicity developed within 8 h post-bite in all patients. No bulbar, respiratory or limb muscle weakness occurred. Neurotoxicity was associated with bites by larger snakes (p < 0.0001) and higher peak serum venom concentrations (p = 0.0025). Antivenom immediately decreased unbound venom in blood. Of 52 patients without neurotoxicity when they received antivenom, 31 developed neurotoxicity. sfEMG in 27 patients with neurotoxicity and 23 without had slightly elevated median jitter on day 1 compared to 29 normal subjects but normalised thereafter. Neurological features resolved in 80% of patients by day 3 with ptosis and weak eye movements resolving last. No clinical or neurophysiological abnormality was detected at 6 weeks or 6 months. Conclusion: Sri Lankan Russells viper envenoming causes mild neuromuscular dysfunction with no long-term effects. Indian polyvalent antivenom effectively binds free venom in blood but does not reverse neurotoxicity.]]> Fri 23 Jun 2017 12:38:16 EST ]]> Computation of Lyapunov functions for systems with multiple local attractors Fri 23 Jun 2017 12:38:14 EST ]]> Applying lean production principles to facilities design of ramp-up factories Fri 23 Jun 2017 12:38:13 EST ]]> Clinical and pharmacological investigation of myotoxicity in Sri Lankan Russell's Viper (Daboia russelii) envenoming Daboia russelii) envenoming is reported to cause myotoxicity and neurotoxicity, which are different to the effects of envenoming by most other populations of Russell’s vipers. This study aimed to investigate evidence of myotoxicity in Russell’s viper envenoming, response to antivenom and the toxins responsible for myotoxicity. Methodology and Findings: Clinical features of myotoxicity were assessed in authenticated Russell’s viper bite patients admitted to a Sri Lankan teaching hospital. Toxins were isolated using high-performance liquid chromatography. In-vitro myotoxicity of the venom and toxins was investigated in chick biventer nerve-muscle preparations. Of 245 enrolled patients, 177 (72.2%) had local myalgia and 173 (70.6%) had local muscle tenderness. Generalized myalgia and muscle tenderness were present in 35 (14.2%) and 29 (11.8%) patients, respectively. Thirty-seven patients had high (>300 U/l) serum creatine kinase (CK) concentrations in samples 24h post-bite (median: 666 U/l; maximum: 1066 U/l). Peak venom and 24h CK concentrations were not associated (Spearman’s correlation; p = 0.48). The 24h CK concentrations differed in patients without myotoxicity (median 58 U/l), compared to those with local (137 U/l) and generalised signs/symptoms of myotoxicity (107 U/l; p = 0.049). Venom caused concentration-dependent inhibition of direct twitches in the chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation, without completely abolishing direct twitches after 3 h even at 80 μg/ml. Indian polyvalent antivenom did not prevent in-vitro myotoxicity at recommended concentrations. Two phospholipase A2 toxins with molecular weights of 13kDa, U1-viperitoxin-Dr1a (19.2% of venom) and U1-viperitoxin-Dr1b (22.7% of venom), concentration dependently inhibited direct twitches in the chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation. At 3 μM, U1-viperitoxin-Dr1a abolished twitches, while U1-viperitoxin-Dr1b caused 70% inhibition of twitch force after 3h. Removal of both toxins from whole venom resulted in no in-vitro myotoxicity. Conclusion: The study shows that myotoxicity in Sri Lankan Russell’s viper envenoming is mild and non-life threatening, and due to two PLA2 toxins with weak myotoxic properties.]]> Fri 23 Jun 2017 12:31:14 EST ]]> Widespread vestibular activation of the rodent cortex Fri 23 Jun 2017 12:17:18 EST ]]>