This chapter has five sections. The first looks at the context of Aboriginal education, including the Indigenous population, Indigenous identity and Indigenous school involvement. The second section looks at the history of Aboriginal education, including the role of Christianity and the missions. The third section looks at contemporary issues influencing Indigenous education, including health and the Northern Territory 'intervention'. It is followed by the fourth section, which discusses working with Aboriginal students, the teacher's role, what a teacher should know, early learning, Aboriginal English and strategies in the classroom. The final section concludes with a view towards the future. This chapter is written by an Indigenous author primarily for education students, many of whom may never meet, teach or interact at a personal level with Indigenous Australians. Nevertheless, please read with an open mind, as understandings of Indigenous issues are usually shaped largely by mainstream cultural environments and political views, which stream into family, the media and other sources.