In a world disposed towards division and the inevitable conflicts that go with it, misunderstanding and misrepresentation are rife. When these things occur in relation to religious and/or values differences, a sound and effective religious and/or values education will respond with a content and pedagogy aimed at enhancing knowledge, understanding and proper representation. In the case of Islam, misunderstanding and misrepresentation are persistent, both within and beyond the Muslim world, increasingly putting at risk the fabric and security of our civilization. The task before religious and values education of dealing with this reality in a constructive and beneficial way is therefore particularly urgent. These areas of the curriculum cannot however carry the burden for such education alone. Especially if the dominant epistemology (or knowledge emphasis) in the school or system is indisposed to dealing with these sorts of content, even the best laid religious or values education programme will struggle to achieve its goals for want of support and effective pedagogy. Ensuring that an appropriate epistemology and attached pedagogy are in place is therefore our first consideration.