This systematic review evaluates the current evidence base for eating behavior changes after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). A literature search from 1990 to February 2010 was conducted to identify original studies that assessed eating behavior in adults who have undergone LAGB. Sixteen articles (14 separate studies) met inclusion criteria. Although strength of the evidence base was limited by observational study designs and methodological weaknesses, results suggest that positive changes in eating behavior occur after surgery, including reduced over-eating in response to emotional and situational cues. There is some evidence to suggest that uncontrolled eating behaviors persist in some individuals, and that this may be problematic for weight loss after surgery. Few studies examined the relationship between changes in eating behavior and weight loss; thus, optimal behavioral strategies for promoting positive weight outcomes remain unclear. Further interventional research addressing the inherent limitations of the current-evidence base is required to guide development of evidence-based management guidelines for LAGB in future.