The article focuses on the promises and pitfalls of outcome-based education in Australia. In this context, it throws light on a study of teachers in the state of New South Wales (NSW) Australia, undertaken for the NSW government. The study reviewed teaching practices surrounding outcomes assessment and reporting as a follow-up to a major study nearly a decade earlier. Both studies explored changes occurring to teachers' work involving planning, teaching, assessing, rewarding, and sharing knowledge in their classrooms and with their colleagues. The reports were commissioned because schools were struggling with a range of problems, many brought on by the advent of outcomes-based education in the 1990s. The starting point for the Australian study was the extent to which teachers were applying course syllabi, through their subject knowledge and professional skills, to provide outcomes-based assessment and reporting. The working hypotheses were based on previous research and anecdotal evidence that led to the commissioning of the review by the state government.