Ireland has been a major beneficiary of inward foreign direct investment (FDI) by MNCs. As FDI grew dramatically through the 1990s, MNCs were heralded as one of the principal reasons behind the country's rapid ascent towards becoming one of the world's most successful economies. However, times have clearly changed. Ireland has quickly transitioned from a high growth to a negative growth economy. More pertinently, much of the recent media spotlight has focused on cases of MNCs closing or downsizing their Irish operations. Concurrently some MNCs have increased employment whilst new organisations have also been attracted, although this position is worsening. This chapter has two principal objectives. First, we outline the key role that MNCs play in the global economy, and particularly so in the Irish context. Second, we summarily outline the specific aims of the survey of HRM and ER practice in MNCs upon which this volume is based.