Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1959.13/917433
- Manganese induces sustained Ser40 phosphorylation and activation of tyrosine hydroxylase in PC12 cells
Franco, Jeferson L.;
Leal, Rodrigo B.;
Dickson, Phillip W.;
Dunkley, Peter R.
- The University of Newcastle. Faculty of Health, School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy
- Manganese (Mn²⁺) is an essential metal involved in normal functioning of a range of physiological processes. However, occupational overexposure to Mn²⁺ causes neurotoxicity. The dopaminergic system is a particular target for Mn²⁺ neurotoxicity. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate limiting enzyme for dopamine synthesis and is regulated acutely by phosphorylation at Ser40 and chronically by protein synthesis. In this study we used pheochromocytoma 12 cells to investigate the effects of Mn²⁺ exposure on the phosphorylation and activity of TH. Mn²⁺ treatment for 24 h caused a sustained increase in Ser40 phosphorylation and TH activity at a concentration of 100 μM, without altering the level of TH protein or PC12 cell viability. Inhibition of protein kinase A and protein kinase C and protein kinases known to be involved in sustained phosphorylation of TH in response to other stimuli did not block the effects of Mn²⁺ on Ser40 phosphorylation. A substantial increase in H₂O₂ production occurred in response to 100 μM Mn²⁺. The antioxidant TroloxTM completely inhibited H₂O₂ production but did not block TH phosphorylation at Ser40, indicating that oxidative stress was not involved. Sustained TH phosphorylation at Ser40 and the consequent activation of TH both occurred at low concentrations of Mn²⁺ and this provides a potential new mechanism for Mn²⁺-induced neuronal action that does not involve H₂O₂-mediated cell death.
- Journal of Neurochemistry Vol. 110, Issue 3, p. 848-856
- Publisher Link
- Wiley-Blackwell Publishing
pheochromocytoma 12 cells;
tyrosine hydroxylase activation
- Resource Type
- journal article