Studies examining the health of military personnel deployed overseas have been published by research teams in the United States and the United Kingdom. This research has examined the effects of combat on the mental and physical health of those who have been deployed. Recently, a research program on the health of deployed personnel began in Australia. Here we present data from the 2007 Solomon Islands Health Study, which focuses on a peace-keeping deployment between 2003 and 2005. We draw comparisons with data from major contemporaneous post-deployment epidemiological cohort studies from the United States and the United Kingdom, where deployments were in the same global political environment, but with greatly differing local hazards and exposures. These studies have particularly focused on the rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol abuse, which are recognized as major adverse health effects of deployment.