The paper describes the development of a constitutive model for a poorly graded sand, which was used in geotechnical experiments on buried pipes (reported elsewhere). The sand was tested extensively in the laboratory to determine the state parameter constants. Triaxial tests on the sand included conventional drained triaxial compression tests, as well as more specialized shearing tests at constant mean effective stress and others at constant volume. Single element simulation of the triaxial tests was performed to validate the proposed constitutive model. The adopted model allowed non-linear elastic behaviour prior to yielding. After yielding of the sand, the state parameter-based model for the sand permitted non-associated plastic flow. Dilation and frictional strength were both dependent on the current value of the state parameter. The combination of laboratory testing and single element modelling resulted in the selection of a single set of material constants for the soil, which adequately described the full range of triaxial tests. Subsequently the model was applied to the problem of a plate loading test on the sand and the model predictions were compared with the test data.
Computers and Geotechnics Vol. 36, Issue 7, p. 1219-1228