This study aimed to characterize early neonatal microvascular function after preeclamptic pregnancy with respect to infant sex and in utero growth. Peripheral microvascular blood flow was examined prospectively from 6 to 72 h of age using laser Doppler flowmetry in a cohort of term infants of normotensive women and women with late-onset preeclampsia. For male infants, those born to preeclamptic women had greater microvascular blood flow at 6 h (p < 0.05) with no change over time. Male infants of normotensive women exhibited increasing blood flow with time (p = 0.005). Female infants of preeclamptic mothers exhibited similar blood flow at 6 h of age to females of normotensive mothers, followed by significantly greater blood flow by 72 h (p < 0.001). Altered fetal microvascular structure and function in response to maternal preeclampsia may result in sexually dimorphic patterns of fetal growth and account for alterations in neonatal microvascular adaptation after birth.