Helicobacter pylori is usually acquired in early childhood through close contact with an infected person, and the infection persists for life unless treated. H. pylori infection accounts for up to 90% of duodenal ulcers and about 70% of gastric ulcers. Most individuals infected with H. pylori do not develop clinically significant disease during their lifetime. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based triple therapy for seven days is highly effective and successfully eradicates H. pylori infection in more than 90% of cases. In most cases of ulcer disease, long-term PPI therapy is not warranted once H. pylori infection has been eradicated.