Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common internal malignancies worldwide. In some countries of high incidence, HCC is the leading form of cancer; and overall, it rates as the seventh most common malignancy in males and the ninth most in females. Cancer statistics from many of the countries with a high incidence of HCC are incomplete; as such, much of the available data may represent underestimates. At least one million new cases of HCC occur annually and mortality from the disease remains high despite treatment, with recent results showing 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year overall survival rates of 66.1%, 39.7%, and 32.5%, respectively; and 93.5%, 70.1%, and 59.1% for early-stage patients, respectively. Even in countries where the incidence is low, the median survival time after resection is 24.8 months compared to 5.8 months in symptomatically treated patients.