Our previous studies revealed that Docetaxelinduced apoptosis of melanoma cells is entirely dependent on activation of the JNK signalling pathway. Here, we show that Docetaxel-induced apoptosis is mediated by induction of ER stress. This was shown by Docetaxelinduced activation of proteins involved in ER stress signalling namely GRP78, ATF6, IRE1α, and PERK/eIF2α. Knockdown of IRE1α by siRNA markedly inhibited Docetaxel-induced JNK activation and downstream targets of JNK indicating that activation of IRE1α was upstream of activation of the JNK. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that activation of JNK is due to activation of ASK1 through formation of an IRE1α-TRAF2-ASK1 complex. ER stress mediated activation of the JNK pathway is downstream of activation of PKCδ in that downregulation of PKCδ expression using specific PKCδ siRNA significantly inhibited Docetaxel-induced activation of IRE1α and the JNK pathway. These findings provide new insights to understand the mode of action of taxanes in treatment of human melanoma.