This note examines the classic passive earth resistance of cohesionless soil by using two newly developed numerical procedures based on finite element formulations of the bound theorems of limit analysis and non-linear programming techniques. Solutions using upper and lower bounds are presented to complement the previous studies of this problem. The parameters studied are soil-wall interface friction, wall inclination, backfill surface configuration and the wall's weight.
Soils and Foundations Vol. 48, Issue 6, p. 843-850