Purpose: The Sydney Myopia Study will establish the prevalence of myopia and other eye diseases in a large representative sample of Sydney school children. It will also examine the relationship between myopia and potential modifiable risk factors and will assess potential gene-environment interactions by examining parents and siblings. Methods: The target population is a stratified random cluster sample of 1750 Year 1 (age 6 years) and 1500 Year 7 (age 12 years) students from Sydney metropolitan schools. Procedures (comprehensive parent-administered questionnaire and examination) involve standardized protocols to allow for comparison with international population-based data. Examinations include a detailed assessment of visual acuity, cover testing for strabismus, identification of amblyopia, slit-lamp examination, non-contact ocular biometry and cycloplegia (cyclopentolate) followed by autorefraction, optical coherence tomography, retinal thickness measurement, digital mydriatic retinal photography and aberrometry. Conclusions: The Sydney Myopia Study design and methodology will ensure valid findings on ocular development and health in a large representative sample of Sydney school children, for comparison with other population-based refraction data.