An electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) has been used to study the effects of electrolyte composition (MnSO₄ and H₂SO₄concentrations) and anodic current density on the electrodeposition of manganese dioxide. The EQCM, in tandem with the electrode voltage during deposition, has been used to characterize features of the deposition mechanism such as the relative lifetime of the Mn(III) intermediate, the rate of soluble Mn(III) hydrolysis to form MnOOH, and the porosity of the resultant manganese dioxide deposit as a function of crystal nucleation. The connection between the results obtained here and commercial electrodeposition of manganese dioxide were also discussed.
Electrochimica Acta Vol. 52, Issue 14, p. 4630-4639