The adsorption of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) onto a ceramic glaze mixture composed of limestone, feldspar, quartz, and kaolin has been investigated. Both adsorption isotherms and the average particle zeta potential have been studied in order to understand the suspension stability as a function of pH, ionic strength, and surfactant concentration. The adsorption of small amounts of cationic CPC onto the primarily negatively charged surfaces of the particles at pH 7 and 9 results in strong attraction and flocculation due to hydrophobic interactions. At higher surfactant concentrations a zeta potential of more than +60 mV results from the bilayered adsorbed surfactant, providing stability at salt concentrations ≤0.01 M. At 0.1 M salt poor stability results despite substantial zeta potential values. Three mechanisms for SDBS adsorption have been identified. When anionic SDBS monomers either adsorb by electrostatic interactions with the few positive surface sites at high pH or adsorb onto like charged negative surface sites due to dispersion or hydrophobic interactions, the magnitude of the negative zeta potential increases slightly. At pH 9 this increase is enough to promote stability with an average zeta potential of more than −55 mV, whereas at pH 7 the zeta potential is lower at about −45 mV. The stability of suspensions at pH 7 is additionally due to steric repulsion caused by the adsorption of thick layers of neutrally charged Ca(DBS)₂ complexes created when the surfactant interacts with dissolved calcium ions from the calcium carbonate component.
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science Vol. 279, Issue 1, p. 23-35