The Medicago truncatula line 2HA has a 500-fold greater capacity to regenerate plants in culture by somatic embryogenesis than wild-type Jemalong. We have compared proteomes of tissue cultures from leaf explants of these two lines. Both 2HA and Jemalong explants were grown on media containing the auxin 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and the cytokinin 6-benzylaminopurine. Proteins were extracted from the cultures at different time points (2, 5, and 8 weeks), separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and detected by silver staining. More than 2,000 proteins could be reproducibly resolved and detected on each gel. Statistical analysis showed that 54 protein spots were significantly (P < 0.05) changed in expression (accumulation) during the 8 weeks of culture, and most of these spots were extracted from colloidal Coomassie-stained two-dimensional gel electrophoresis gels and were subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Using a publicly available expressed sequence tag database and the Mascot search engine, we were able to identify 16 differentially expressed proteins. More than 60% of the differentially expressed protein spots had very different patterns of gene expression between 2HA and Jernalong during the 8 weeks of culture.