This paper reports the results of an investigation into the perceived level of necessity of 91 management and leadership competency items across three nations: Australia, the United States and Germany. As many as 61 of the competencies are revealed to attract significantly different perceptions among managers from each of the three nations. In particular, the differences between German managers on the one hand, and managers from the USA and Australia on the other, are highlighted. Notably, the leadership competency grouping concerning motivation and team building is perceived to be far more necessary to US and Australian managers, as are managerial functions such as short term planning and establishing control systems, whereas having a sensitivity towards national differences and avoiding spontaneous decisions where appropriate are more highly regarded as central to managerial effectiveness by German executives. Differences in perceived importance of the competency elements are evaluated along national lines utilising Hofstede's four dimensions of national culture.
International Journal of Organsiational Behaviour Vol. 5, Issue 9, p. 263-281