This note records some observations concerning geodesic growth functions. If a nilpotent group is not virtually cyclic then it has exponential geodesic growth with respect to all finite generating sets. On the other hand, if a finitely generated group $G$ has an element whose normal closure is abelian and of finite index, then $G$ has a finite generating set with respect to which the geodesic growth is polynomial (this includes all virtually cyclic groups).
International Journal of Algebra and Computation Vol. 22, Issue 5