Estes and Maddox (2002) suggested that the word frequency mirror effect in episodic recognition memory might be due to word likeness rather than to the frequency of experience with a word per se. We examined their suggestion using a factorial manipulation of frequency and neighborhood density, a measure used in lexical memory research to measure orthographic word likeness. For study with no specified task, main effects of density and frequency were in the mirror order, confirming the hypothesized mirror effect of word likeness but not its role in producing the frequency mirror effect. Lexical decision study increased the size of both mirror effects, even though the density manipulation had a negligible effect on lexical decision performance for words. Post hoc analyses showed that neither mirror effect could be explained by differences in lower order measures of word likeness (letter and bigram frequency). The joint orders of frequency and density results were mirrored across new and old conditions in accordance with attention likelihood theory (ALT), but density effects on z-ROC slope suggest that ALT may require extension to accommodate the effect of word likeness on response confidence.