Dementia typically occurs in older people. This syndrome can be described as progressing through particular stages and may be related to the presence of specific disorders. There are particular behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) that typically accompany a diagnosis of dementia. These symptoms appear to be a result of both cognitive decline and environmental factors. They disrupt the occupational engagement and functioning of both the person with dementia and the carer(s). They appear to arise from negative engagement with the environment and may exist for up to 20 years. Education of the carer(s), whether family members or paid aged-care workers, is essential for the management and reduction of the incidence of BPSD. An occupation analysis of a person with dementia assists in establishing the past and present interests and abilities of the person and the possible effects of the environment on the person. It also enables appropriate development of relevant interventions.