A computational bidomain model of epiretinal stimulation is presented, consisting of a continuum description of active retinal tissue in contact with bulk vitreous fluid. Results from two-electrode and four-electrode bipolar stimulation suggest that a biphasic cathodic-anodic stimulus sequence is effective in providing targeted focal activation of retinal tissue. Undesired secondary activations beneath each electrode return may be eliminated by using multiple returns for each stimulus electrode.
IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering Vol. 13, no. 2, p. 137-146