Australia presents an interesting case study in the context of this volume. It changed its policy toward nuclear weapons in 1973 and subsequently pursued a bifurcated external security policy based on sheltering under a U.S. nuclear guarantee while offering strong support and encouragement for the NPT and nuclear disarmament, despite the apparent contradictions between these two paths. This policy has persisted despite the evolution in global political structures since the early 1990s, though there are some indications of future changes. This chapter will therefore focus on the trigger events that generated movement toward nuclear weapon possession until 1973; the role played by both external and internal forces in shaping Australia's current nonproliferation policy; the changing attitude of Australia toward the front end of the fuel cycle, particularly with regard to the relationship between commercial gains and security concerns; and how its policies in these areas may evolve over the next decades.
Forecasting Nuclear Profileration in the 21st Century, Volume II: a Comparative Perspective p. 285-301